Thank you for the reminder!
(This post was initially requested by someone who’s interested in Islam)
Before I launch into this, I’d just like to point out that the Quran was revealed to Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) in the year 632AD.
Prophet Mohammad was an illiterate man, he did not know how to read or write. How could an illiterate man, over 1400 years ago, manage to know all this scientific evidence when scientists haven’t even theorized these concepts until more than a millennium later? Because the Quran was revealed by God, creator of everything we know, and everything we have yet to discover.
As always, if you have questions and need more information, you can always ask me and I’ll do my best to answer what you’re looking for.
The seven layers of the Earth’s crust
- early scientists believed that the earth’s crust is made up of 3 layers
- scientists later discovered that the earth in fact has 7 layers (more here)
- “Who has created the seven heavens one above another…” [67:3]
- “It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven).” [65:12]
*note: The first verse explains that they are organized into layers, and the second verse explains that there are 7 layers, just as the heavens.
The creation of human beings- clay, embryology, the fetus.
- scientific studies today are relating RNA to clay
Living tissue in the human body contains 95% carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur, with a total of 26 different elements, the same elements are found in soil (more here)
- "Your Lord said to the angels, ‘I am going to create a human being out of clay. When I have formed him and breathed My Spirit into him, fall down in prostration to him!’"[38:71-72]
- "We created man from an extract of clay." [23:12]
- "Verily We created man from a product of wet earth. Then placed him as a drop (of seed) in a safe lodging. Then fashioned We the drop a clot, then fashioned We the clot a little lump, then clothed the bones with flesh and then produced it as another creation. So blessed be Allah, the best of the Creators." [23:12-14]
- The average sperm count is 20 to 150 million per millilitre in an ejaculation. Of that, only one single sperm cell continues on to form a fetus.
- "He it is Who created you from dust, then from a drop (of seed) then from a clot, then bringeth you forth as a child, then (ordaineth) that ye attain full strength and afterward that ye become old men - though some among you die before - and that ye reach an appointed term, that haply ye may understand." [40:67]
- "Does man reckon he will be left uncontrolled (without purpose)? Was he not once a drop of ejected semen?" [75:36-37]
- The Y chromosome carries characteristics of masculinity, while the X chromosome carries those of femininity. In the mother’s egg, there is only the X chromosome, which determines female characteristics. The sperm on the other hand, includes either X or Y chromosomes. Therefore, the sex of the fetus is dependant the sperm.
"He has created both sexes, male and female from a drop of semen which has been ejected.”[53:45-46]
FOR A DETAILED EXPLANATION OF EMBRYOLOGY AND THE DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF THE HUMAN FETUS IN THE QURAN, CLICK HERE & HERE
Expansion of the universe
- Einstein’s theory of “General Relativity” predicted that the universe was expanding. In1929, Edwin Hubble made major discoveries on the topic, however did not confirm the theory. A few years later, as the abilities to measure the distance and Doppler shift of galaxies improved, the theory of expansion was confirmed. (more here)
"The heavens, We have built with power and, We are expanding it." [51:4]
Orbit of the planets and round Earth theory
- In the 17th century, Galileo discovered that planets orbit the sun through telescopic observations
- Modern scientists have proven that the moons orbit the planets
- (more here)
- "It is He Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They swim along, each in an orbit" [21:33]
- "And the sun runs to its resting place. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing." [37:38]
- "By the sky full of paths and orbits."[51:7]
- Scientists in the middle ages were led to believe that the Earth was flat
- 20th century scientists have proven that the Earth is round (more here)
"He has created the Heavens and the Earth for Truth. He wraps the night up in the day, and wraps the day up in the night." [39:5]
*note: The arabic word used in the verse is “takwir”, which translates into “to wrap” for the verse above. Takwir is a known word which means “to make one thing lap over another”, which in this case would be the earth folded into a sphere to wrap night into day and day into night
The atmostphere as a protected roof
- 20th century scientists have discovered that the Earth’s atmosphere serves as a protection from meteors and UV rays (more here)
"We made the sky a preserved and protected roof yet still they turn away from Our Signs…" [21:32]
The 7 layers of the atmosphere
- Scientists have found that the atmosphere consists of seven layers. The layers differ in such physical properties as pressure and the types of gasses. (more here)
- 1. Troposphere
- "It is He Who created everything on the earth for you and then directed His attention up to heaven and arranged it into seven regular heavens. He has knowledge of all things." [2:29]
- "Then He turned to heaven when it was smoke. In two days He determined them as seven heavens and revealed, in every heaven, its own mandate." [41:12]
*note: the word used to describe the skies in the Quran is “samawaat”, which also translates into “heavens”. When the translation of the Quran says “heavens”, it is referring to the sky. (i.e. the word “heaven” isn’t the same as “paradise”)
Movement of the mountains
- In 1915, Alfred Wegener came up with evidence to support his “Continental Drift Theory”. He was suggesting that the Earth, along with the mountains were in fact moving. (more here)
"You will see the mountains you reckoned to be solid, going past like clouds."[27:88]
Iron- the benefits and the origin
- Modern scientific findings have discovered that Iron can only be produced in much bigger stars than the Sun, where the temperature reaches a few hundred million degrees. When the amount of iron exceeds a certain level in a star, the star can no longer accommodate it, and eventually it explodes into a “nova” or a “supernova”.
- As a result of this explosion, meteors containing iron are scattered around the universe, and they move through the void until attracted by the gravitational force of a celestial body.
- Iron was not formed on the earth, rather it was sent down to it through meteors (more here)
"…And We sent down iron in which there lies great force and which has many uses for mankind….” [57:25]
Everything is created in pairs
- Paul Dirac, a British scientist and a Nobel Prize winner in 1933, made the discovery called “paritè”, which suggests that everything is created in pairs.
"Glory be to Him, who created all the pairs: from what the earth produces and from themselves and from things unknown to them" [37:36]
The merging of seas- or lack thereof
- Oceanographers have discovered that due to surface tension, the water of neighbouring seas do not mix. This is caused by the difference in density of the water, causing them unable to mix as though there is a wall between them.
"He has let loose the two seas, converging together, with a barrier between them they do not break through."[55:19-20]
Identity of the fingerprint
- It is widely known that every individual human being has their own set of fingerprints that is unique to his/herself
"Yes, We are able to put together in perfect order the very tips of his fingers."[75:3-4]
Everything I have mentioned in this post is very general, for more details on individual topics, check out the links provided.
If you’d like to read more about the scientific evidence in the Quran, I would recommend this link.